ES pluripotency and Differentiation
ESCs are pluripotent and can self-renew, meaning they can differentiate into any cell in the body and can divide continuously in an undifferentiated state. which makes them very special and unique cells. They are regulated by several cell signaling pathways including the TGF-β pathway, which signals through Smad2/3/4, and the FGFR pathway, which activates the secondary pathways MAPK and Akt.
The pathway below is interactive, meaning you can click on an active pathway component (highlighted in orange) to learn more about available mouse models relevant to that specific gene and pathway function.